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Assert, Require, Revert

Enforce invariants with assert()

An assert guard triggers when an assertion fails - such as an invariant property changing. For example, the token to ether issuance ratio, in a token issuance contract, may be fixed. You can verify that this is the case at all times with an assert(). Assert guards should often be combined with other techniques, such as pausing the contract and allowing upgrades. (Otherwise, you may end up stuck, with an assertion that is always failing.)


contract Token {
    mapping(address => uint) public balanceOf;
    uint public totalSupply;

    function deposit() public payable {
        balanceOf[msg.sender] += msg.value;
        totalSupply += msg.value;
        assert(address(this).balance >= totalSupply);

Note that the assertion is not a strict equality of the balance because the contract can be forcibly sent ether without going through the deposit() function!

Use assert(), require(), revert() properly


The convenience functions assert and require can be used to check for conditions and throw an exception if the condition is not met.

The assert function should only be used to test for internal errors, and to check invariants.

The require function should be used to ensure valid conditions, such as inputs, or contract state variables are met, or to validate return values from calls to external contracts. *

Following this paradigm allows formal analysis tools to verify that the invalid opcode can never be reached: meaning no invariants in the code are violated and that the code is formally verified.

pragma solidity ^0.5.0;

contract Sharer {
    function sendHalf(address payable addr) public payable returns (uint balance) {
        require(msg.value % 2 == 0, "Even value required."); //Require() can have an optional message string
        uint balanceBeforeTransfer = address(this).balance;
        (bool success, ) = / 2)("");
        // Since we reverted if the transfer failed, there should be
        // no way for us to still have half of the money.
        assert(address(this).balance == balanceBeforeTransfer - msg.value / 2); // used for internal error checking
        return address(this).balance;

See SWC-110 & SWC-123

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